14 May 2017

Golub-Dobrzyń Castle

Golub Castle is a four-wing conventual Teutonic castle built in 13th/14th century. The castle was built on a hill as a look-out point over the whole town of Golub-Dobrzyń. The castle was initially constructed in a brick Gothic architectural style in 1293 or 1300. The Renaissance attic was added in the 17th century during rebuilt in 1616-1623. Currently it houses a museum, hotel and restaurant.
According to legends, during the Polish-Swedish wars the Golub castle had a secret underground passage near Drwęca to the castle in Radziki Duży. When the Swedes occupied Golub, the townspeople fled this way from the invaders, who were cut off by a huge stone, which fell into the current of the river and collapsed the tunnel vault. The stone can still be seen in the Drwęca stream

Until the end of the 13th century, there was a wooden stronghold here guarding the crossing over Drwęca, which in 1293 was exchanged between the monastic bishop of Włocławek and the Order.
In the years 1300–1311 a peripheral wall of the upper castle and two wings (west and south) were erected as the seat of the Teutonic commander. These works should be associated with the figure of the Prussian national champion Konrad Sack. The castle was probably designed by the same architect whose work was the castle in Rogoźno. In the next phase after 1330, a north-west corner of the tower was built. In the years 1329-1333 the castle tried to capture Władysław Łokietek three times. In the eastern part of the southern wing is a chapel dedicated to St. Cross with a decorative portal leading to it. Two penitential cells adjoined the chapel, as well as the chapter house and the infirmary. The commander occupied the west wing, and the north wing was allocated to the dormitory of religious brothers. The east wing housed the sacristy, refectory and another room.

To the east of the castle, a fortified bailey was built with towers that housed stables, barns, and granaries. In the years 1409-1411 some of the religious troops coming to Grunwald gathered here. The commander Nicolaus Roder was one of two hundred brothers of knights killed during the battle. In 1410, the castle was occupied by Polish knights and handed over to the knight Niemście from Szczytniki by king Władysław Jagiełło. However, soon the castle was occupied by the Teutonic Knights of the Order of the Sword Knights supporting the Teutonic Knights, which met with the opposition of Polish troops. In autumn 1410 under the leadership of Bydgoszcz staroste Dobiesław Puchała of the Wieniawa coat of arms defeated the majority of the Livonian army in the battle. After signing the first peace of Toruń in 1411, the castle was returned to the Teutonic Knights.

During the Golub War in 1422, after the artillery fire of 14 cannons, the Polish army captured the city. During that battle the commander died. As a result of artillery shelling of Jagiełło's army, the castle was severely damaged. After it was recovered by the Teutonic Knights, two Polish prisoners of war were imprisoned in it. As it's known from the letter of the Toruń commander from summer 1423, they escaped from the castle. Soon the castle's defense system was adapted to defend with firearms. For this purpose two cylindrical towers from the outer ward were built and connected by a bridge with defensive porches. The castle was rebuilt after the destruction in the years 1433-1449.

After the outbreak of the Thirteen Years' War in 1454, the castle was taken over by the Prussian Union forces acting in consultation with Poland. On 19 September 1460, the castle was besieged by the mercenary Teutonic army under the command of Bernard Szumborski, but the Polish castle crew, commanded by Andrzej Puszkarz, managed to repel the attack. The Teutonic Knights took the city of Golub, but they could not conquer the castle for two years.

In the years 1616–1623 rebuilt on the order of the sister of King Zygmunt III Waza, princess Anna Wazówna, who took over the Golub starosty - then, among others, late Renaissance attics, a building in the foregate, the windows were changed and turrets in the corners were added. Here, tobacco was grown for the first time in Poland and imported from Turkey. The castle was destroyed in 1655 during the Swedish wars. At the beginning of the 18th century, the interiors were renovated. In 1920, the Polish authorities organized a museum in the castle. In 1937, the roof and several rooms were renovated.
After the war, the first security work was carried out in 1947-1953. Rebuilt and restored in 1959–1966 and during subsequent adaptation works after 2006. In 1977, one of the first historical reconstructions in Poland took place in the castle - a knights' tournament was staged there.

PTTK 13, 87-400 Golub-Dobrzyń, Poland

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